Fireproof materials: building fire prevention
The fundamental purpose of building fire prevention is to comprehensively ensure the fire safety performance of buildings, that is, to make the fire prevention conditions of buildings reach certain corresponding standards. China's current fire prevention standards and specifications are based on several basic conditions:
a. Experience summary of the actual state of various types of fires that have occurred many times in history;
b. Collection of a large number of modern scientific experiments and modern simulation results;
c. At present, it is supported by various effective technical precautions;
d. The actual human and economic bearing capacity of the country.
In terms of building fire protection design, China's current fire protection code mainly considers three basic principles:
1. Ensure that the fire hazard in the building is reduced to the lowest point from the design;
2. Know the fire as soon as possible and automatically extinguish the fire by relying on fixed fire-fighting facilities in the most timely manner;
3. Ensure that the building structure has the specified fire resistance strength, so as to facilitate the occupants in the building to evacuate effectively and safely within the corresponding time. The so-called building fire safety standard system is a set of building design structures and various automatic and manual facilities established according to the above basic principles to prevent building fires.
Theoretically, the building fire safety requirements can be divided into two parts: active fire safety standards and passive fire safety standards. The basic function of the active fire prevention system is to detect and extinguish the fire at an early stage, ensure the safe evacuation of personnel and reduce the harm of smoke. That is, people can use the most effective fire-fighting facilities to detect and extinguish fires, and escape through the safest and simplest routes and exits. The requirements of passive fire protection system shall embody the following basic characteristics:
a. Limit the spread of fire and smoke to a certain space as far as possible;
b. Limit the quantity and burning speed of combustible materials in the building;
c. Prevent local and overall collapse of building structure;
d. Realize organic complementarity with active fire protection system.
Architecture records the history of human development and promotes society to a better future. Fire prevention standards will effectively protect the history created by mankind.
Introduction to fireproof materials
A material with the property of preventing or retarding flame spread. For fire protection. There are two types of non combustible materials and flame retardant materials. Incombustible materials do not burn. Although the flame-retardant material can burn, it has flame retardancy, that is, it is difficult to ignite and carbonize, and the combustion can stop after the fire source is removed, so it is also called flame-retardant material. Among the fire-retardant materials, except for a few with flame-retardant functions, in most cases, they are made by flame retardants, fire-retardant Impregnators or fire-retardant coatings. From the perspective of fire safety, fireproof materials should be used instead of flammable materials in civil buildings to reduce fire load and fire spreading speed. Its fire performance shall be confirmed by corresponding combustion test according to different use requirements.